Forces for Sustainability

This is the report of the first Peace and Sustainability Session named "Forces for Sustainability", held in the Peace Palace in The Hague in March 2007. The meeting brought together about 70 decision makers, opinion leaders, professionals in peacekeeping operations, environmental scientists, the private sector, juridical experts as well as international and grass root organisations working in areas of armed conflict to find solutions for sustainable development challenges.

Topics that are addressed in the report include: sustainability challenges in areas of armed conflicts; the environment during armed conflict; experiences with sustainability issues in transition phases towards peace; civil-military cooperation; and the roles and responsibilities of communities and the private sector. Situations from Afghanistan, Nepal, the Niger Delta, Papua, Lebanon as well as the African Great Lakes region -amongst others- are used as exemplifying cases.

Publication website ( PDF - )

Author(s)Nicolas Frankcom, Eric van de Giessen
PublisherInstitute for Environmental Security
Place publishedThe Hague
Date / Journal Vol No.


Related Organisations


1 - ES and foreign and security policy (Mainstreaming environmental factors into foreign and security policy including energy and food security, and security related to other resources such as land, water, living marine resources, terrestrial biodiversity)
2 - ES and development cooperation (Mainstreaming conflict prevention and livelihood protection into development cooperation especially in conflict prone and conflict affected countries, for example, through payment of ecological services and equitable benefit-sharing mechanisms)
3 - ES and peace building (Environmental cooperation for peace building such as through peace parks, river basin management initiatives and cooperation over degraded and environmentally-stressed resources in conflict-prone and conflict-affected zones)
5 - ES risk and needs assessment and management 
6 - Environmental conflict prevention and resolution 
7- Post-conflict environmental rehabilitation and reconstruction 
8 - Natural disasters and climate change mitigation and adaptation  


NAT Nature Conservation / Protected Areas
TRA Trade

Scope Areas

Africa Great Lakes 
Central Africa 
Democratic Republic of Congo 
Middle East 
West Africa