Institute for Environmental Security

Advancing Global Environmental Security through
Science · Diplomacy · Law · Finance · Education

Proceedings of
The Hague Conference on Environment, Security and Sustainable Development

The Peace Palace, The Hague, The Netherlands
9 - 12 May 2004



Opening: Environmental Security in the 21st Century

Organised by the Institute for Environmental Security and
European Centre for Public Affairs


Moderator: Tom Spencer, Visiting Professor of Global Governance, University of Surrey / Former President of the Foreign Affairs, Security and Defence Policy Committee of the European Parliament (1997-1999) / Senior Advisor, IES

The International System and the Global Environment in the Long Twentieth Century:
Prof John McNeill, Cinco Hermanos Chair of Environmental and International Affairs, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University / Author of "Something New Under the Sun"

Comments by Dr Emad Adly, General Co-ordinator, Arab Network for Environment and Development / Nile Basin Discourse-Civil Society Engagement on the Nile

Comments by Juan Dumas, Director General, Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericano, Ecuador

Comments by Dr John Ashton, CEO, E3G: Third Generation Environmentalism / Former Director for Strategic Partnerships, LEAD International / Former Head, Environment Policy Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK




Session 1: The Environment and Security Challenge

Organised by the Institute for Environmental Security


Moderator: Wouter Veening, Director, Institute for Environmental Security / Former Policy Director, Netherlands Committee for the IUCN

Emerging Challenges to Environmental and Human Security: Pieter Van Geel, State Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, The Netherlands

Message from Margot Wallström, European Commissioner for the Environment:
Presented by Margaret Brusasco-Mackenzie, Member Green Globe Network / Former Advisor for Sustainable Development, DG Environment, European Commission

What should be the role of the United States?: Frank E Loy, Chairman, Environment 2004 / Former US Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs

What should be the role of the United Nations?: Frits Schlingemann, Director and Regional Representative, Regional Office of Europe, United Nations Environment Programme




Session 2: Resources and Sources of Conflict

Organised by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)


Moderator: Frits Schlingemann, Director and Regional Representative, Regional Office of Europe, United Nations Environment Programme

Sources of Environmental Conflict: Prof Dr Andjelka Mihajlov, University of Novi Sad / Former Minister for Environment and Natural Resources, Serbia

The Anatomy of Resource Wars: Michael Renner, Senior Researcher and Project Director for Vital Signs, World Watch Institute

Examples of the Environment - Security Interface: Sirojidin Aslov, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea / 1st Vice-minister of Foreign Affairs of Tajikistan

The Impact of Europe's Resource use on the World: Dr Martin Rocholl, Director, Friends of the Earth Europe

The Activities of CCMS in the field of Environment and Security: Dr Deniz Beten, Programme Director, Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society, NATO




Session 3: International Law and Global Governance

Organised by Global Environmental Governance Project, Yale Center for
Environmental Law and Policy and Permanent Court of Arbitration


Moderator: Dr John Ashton, CEO, E3G: Third Generation Environmentalism / Former Director for Strategic Partnerships, LEAD International / Former Head, Environment Policy Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK

The Role of Conflict Prevention and Dispute Resolution: Tjaco T van den Hout, Secretary General, Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Role of Non-compliance Procedures: René Lefeber, Legal Adviser, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands

The Next Steps for Global Environmental Governance: Maria Ivanova, Director, Global Environmental Governance Project, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy




Parallel Roundtables - Round I
Parallel Roundtable A-I:

Diplomacy-I: Resources and Conflict: Policy Responses

Organised by International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and
IUCN - The World Conservation Union


Moderators: Duncan Brack, Associate Fellow, Royal Institute of International Affairs / Senior Policy Advisor, UK Liberal Democratic Party and Mersie Ejigu, President and Chief Executive Officer of Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES) / Former Minister of Planning and Development / Former Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ethiopia

Rapporteurs: Jason Switzer, IISD and Sonia Pena-Moreno, IUCN

Resource Persons:

Addressing Livelihood Difficulties: Is it Time for an Environmental Marshall Plan: Dr Leif Ohlsson, Dept of Peace & Dev Research Goteborg University / Editor, "Environment, Development & Conflict - EDC News" electronic newsletter & website

Global Change and Environmental Conflict Avoidance: PD Dr Hans Günter Brauch, Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies / Otto-Suhr Institute for Political Sciecne, Free University of Berlin, Germany

Impacts of Desertification on Conflict Risk: Programme Actions: Rajeb Boulharouf, External Relations and Public Information Unit, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)




Parallel Roundtable B:

Security as Independence or Interdependence: Implications for Global Governance

Organised by Global Environmental Governance Project, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy


Moderator: Maria Ivanova, Director, Global Environmental Governance Project,
Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy

Rapporteur: Lindsey Powell, Research Assistant, Global Environmental Governance Project, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy

Resource Persons:

Bert Axel Szelinski, Head of Division G II 3, Cooperation with OECD Member States: OECD, OSCE, UN-ECE, NATO-CCMS, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Germany

Harris Gleckman, Chief, New York Office, UNCTAD

Dr John Ashton, CEO, E3G: Third Generation Environmentalism / Former Director for Strategic Partnerships, LEAD International / Former Head, Environment Policy Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK

Prof John Forgach, Investment Banker, McCklusky Fellow, Yale

Roundtable Summary




Parallel Roundtable C:

Finance-I: Building Blocks for a Sustainable Future

Organised by Institute for Environmental Security and TransGlobal Ventures, Inc.


Moderator: Franz Knecht, Managing Partner, Connexis

Rapporteur: Barry Spergel, International Lawyer and Environmental Financing Consultant, formerly with Center for Conservation Finance, World Wildlife Fund, US

Resource Persons:

The Economic Rationale for Investing in Life-supporting Ecosystems: Dr Paul Jefferiss, Economist, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Full Powerpoint presentation - 7MB

Climate Change and Mounting Financial Risks: Dr Andrew Dlugolecki, ANDLUG Consultancy

Reducing Risks by Setting Measurable Targets: Dr Mathis Wackernagel, Co-creator of the Ecological Footprint and Executive Director of the Global Footprint Network
Full Powerpoint presentation - 2.5MB

Renewable Energy Targets: Targets, Investments, Employment: Oliver Schaefer, Policy Advisor, European Renewable Energy Council (EREC)
Full Powerpoint presentation - 1.5MB

Roundtable Summary




Parallel Roundtable D:

Education-I: Preparing Civil Society

Organised by EuroCampus Institute and University for Peace


Moderator: Prof Dr Rietje van Dam-Mieras, Professor and Former Rector, Open University, NL

Rapporteur: Dr Fayen d'Evie, UPEACE

Resource Persons:

The Earth Charter as Inspiration: Irene Dankelman, Women's Environment and Development Organisation (WEDO) / the University of Nijmegen, Netherlands

Promoting Civil Society Dialogue: Mr Robert Hull, Director, Directorate A, European Economic and Social Committee / Former Head, Environment and Sustainable Development Policy Unit, EC

Bio-education for Global Environmental Leadership: Dr Agni Arvanitis Vlavianos, President and Founder, Biopolitics International Organisation

Learning Participation, Consensus Building and Conflict Management: Léna Salamé, PCCP Project Co-ordinator, UNESCO




Evening Session 10 May


Reception offered by the Mayor of the City of The Hague, Mayor W. J. Deetman with speech by Vice Mayor M. (Ries) Smits,(photo top right)

Dinner with keynote address by Tom Spencer, (photo left), Visiting Professor of Global Governance, University of Surrey / Former Chairman of the Foreign Affairs, Human Rights and Defence Policy Committee of the European Parliament / Senior Advisor, IES




Session 4: Investing in a Secure and Sustainable Future

Organised by Institute for Environmental Security and TransGlobal Venture, Inc

Moderator: Harris Gleckman, Chief, New York Office, UNCTAD

The Ecological Footprint: Natural Resource Accounts for Investment Decisions?: Dr Mathis Wackernagel, Co-creator of the Ecological Footprint and Executive Director of the Global Footprint Network

Investing in Stability - Conflict Risk, Markets and the Bottom Line: Paul Clements-Hunt, Executive Director, UNEP-FI

Fast Forward to 2025: Three Decisions Our Children will Thank Us For: Steven Lovink, President TransGlobal Ventures, Inc. / Vice-chair IES
Full Powerpoint presentation - 6.1MB

Session Summary




Session 5: Environmental Opportunities for Peace Building

Organised by Adelphi Research and the Environmental Change and Security Project of the Woodrow Wilson Institute Centre for Scholars with the Green Globe Network

Moderator: Margaret Brusasco-Mackenzie, Member Green Globe Network / Former Advisor for Sustainable Development, DG Environment, European Commission

Opportunities and Constraints of Environmental Peace Making - Lessons learned from Water, Nature Conservation and the Timber Sector: Alexander Carius, Co-founder and Director, Adelphi Research
Full Powerpoint presentation

The Role of Civil Society Forums in International River Basin Management - the Case of the Nile: Dr Patricia Kameri-Mbote, Prof. of Law, Department of Private Law, University of Kenya
Full Powerpoint presentation

Why the States/Entities in the Jordan River Basin are co-operating over their scarce Water Resource: Dr Anders Jägerskog, EGDI Secretariat, Department for Global Development, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden
Full Powerpoint presentation

Promoting Peace through Transboundary Nature Conservation - The K-2-Siachen Peace Park: Dr Saleem H Ali, professor Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont/ Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University / Author, Mining, the Environment and Indigenous Development Conflicts
Full Powerpoint Presentation




Session 6: Building Environmental Knowledge Capital
for the 21st Century

Organised by EuroCampus Institute and University for Peace

Moderator: Dr Gottfried Leibbrandt, Chairman, EuroCampus Institute / Former Director-General for Higher Education and Research, The Netherlands / Former Founding President, Open University of The Netherlands

Rapporteur: Drs Jeannette E Mullaart, Programme Officer, Environment & Development Resource Centre

Learning, Leadership and Sustainability: Dr Jake Reynolds, Assistant Director, Programme for Industry, University of Cambridge / CHRONOS Programme, WBCSD
Full Powerpoint presentation

Knowledge Creation for Sustainable Development: Building Leadership Capacity: Julia Marton-Lefèvre, Executive Director of LEAD (Leadership for Environment and Development) International
Full Powerpoint presentation - 10.3MB

Educating Citizens on Environmental Rights and Safety: Dr Alexander V Fedorov, Council Chairman Centre for Environmental Initiatives, Russia

Preparing Society for the 21st Century: How Governments, NGOs, the Media and Learning Networks Can Make a Difference: Mersie Ejigu, President and Chief Executive Officer of Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES) / Former Minister of Planning and Development; Former Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ethiopia
Full Powerpoint presentation - 1.7MB




Parallel Roundtables - Round II
Parallel Roundtable A-I (Continued):

Diplomacy-I: Resources and Conflict: Policy Responses

Organised by International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and IUCN - The World Conservation Union


Moderators: Duncan Brack, Associate Fellow, Royal Institute of International Affairs / Senior Policy Advisor, UK Liberal Democratic Party and Mersie Ejigu, President and Chief Executive Officer of Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES) / Former Minister of Planning and Development / Former Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ethiopia

Rapporteur: Jason Switzer, IISD and Sonia Pena, IUCN

Resource Persons:

The Role of the OSCE: Practical Cases: Annica Carlsson, OSCE Environmental Advisor, Office of the Co-ordinator of EEA, OSCE
Full Powerpoint presentation

Challenges for Latin American Practitioners in Environmental Conflict Prevention: Juan Dumas, Director General, Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericano, Ecuador

Environmental Scarcity and Conflict in Highland Peru: Tom Deligiannis, PhD Candidate, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Environmental Governance and Resource Conflict: Mitigation through Public Access Mechanisms: Eric Dannenmaier, Director, Tulane Institute for Environmental Law and Policy




Parallel Roundtable E:

Diplomacy-II: US and EU Policies on Security and Environment: The
Next Four Years

Organised by Brookings Institution and European Centre for Public Affairs


Moderator: Nigel Purvis, Brookings Scholar on Environment, Development, and Global Issues, Brookings Institution / Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans, Environment and Science

Rapporteur: Ronald A Kingham, Deputy Director, Institute for Environmental Security / Former European Co-ordinator, Transatlantic Environment Dialogue

Resource Persons:

Dr Geoffrey D. Dabelko, Director, Environmental Change and Security Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Tom Spencer, Director European Centre for Public Affairs; former Chairman of the Foreign Affairs, Human Rights and Defence Policy Committee, European Parliament

Derek Osborn, Member of the UK Sustainable Development Commission / Former Director General of Environmental Protection in the UK Department of the Environment / Former Co-Chair 1997 UN General Assembly 5 year review of UNCED / Former Chairman of the Management Board of the European Environment Agency




Parallel Roundtable F:

Law-II: Judicial Tools for Preventing and Resolving Environmental Conflict

Organised by Permanent Court of Arbitration


Moderator: René Lefeber, Legal Advisor, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Rapporteur: Dane Ratliff, Legal Counsel, Permanent Court of Arbitration

Resource Persons:

International v. National Jurisdiction over Environmental Disputes: Prof Ellen Hey, Chair Public International Law, Rotterdam

Environmental Law Capacity Needs in Developing Countries: Hongxia Liu, American Bar Association - UNDP International Legal Resource Center

UNESCO's PCCP Programme as an Example of Pre-adjudicative Techniques in Resolving Natural Resources Disputes: Léna Salamé, PCCP Project Co-ordinator, UNESCO

From Prevention to Resolution of Disputes Over Transboundary Watercourses - Recent Trends: Prof Attila Tanzi, University of Verona

Litigating Disaster: The Bhopal Catastrophe: Kenneth McCallion, McCallion and Associates




Parallel Roundtable G:

Finance-II: Financial Solutions for a Secure and Sustainable Future

Organised by Institute for Environmental Security and TransGlobal Ventures, Inc.


Moderator: Prof John Forgach, Investment Banker, McCklusky Fellow, Yale

Rapporteur: Dr Andrew Dlugolecki, ANDLUG Consultancy

Resource Persons:

Conservation Finance: Alternatives and Opportunities: Barry Spergel, International Lawyer and Environmental Financing Consultant, formerly with Center for Conservation Finance, World Wildlife Fund, US
Full Powerpoint presentation

Carbon Trading: Obstacles and Opportunities: Jan Willem Martens, EcoSecurities
Full Powerpoint presentation

Private Capital as Catalyst of Change: Kate Hampton, Climate Change Capital / Green Globe Network
Full Powerpoint presentation

Macro-markets and Environmental Futures: Dr Emile Servan-Schreiber, NewsFutures.com
Full Powerpoint presentation




Parallel Roundtable H:

Education-II: Nurturing tomorrow's Leaders

Organised by EuroCampus Institute and University for Peace


Moderator: Jakob Ström, Head of Section, Division for International Affairs Ministry of the Environment, Sweden / Former International Secretary, National Council of Swedish Youth Organizations

Rapporteur: (To be announced)

Resource Persons:

Programme on Environmental Security and Peace: Dr Fayen d'Evie, UPEACE

Key Issues for Tomorrows' Leaders in Environmental Affairs: Alexander Gritsinin, Project Manager, Water Programme, EAP Task Force, ENV, OECD / Former General Manager, Namangan Branch, The Coca-Cola Bottlers Uzbekistan LTD

From Personal Values to Corporate Action: E-learning on the Business Case for Sustainable Development: Dr Jake Reynolds, Assistant Director, Programme for Industry, University of Cambridge / CHRONOS Programme, WBCSD

Enforcing Environmental Law: Training the Judiciary: Amy Hindman, Legal Advisor to the Executive Director, UNEP, Nairobi




Evening Session 11 May


Reception: Hosted by IISD and IUCN on the occasion of the launch of the programme on "Trade, Aid and Security: Elements of a Positive Paradigm" presented by Duncan Brack, Associate Fellow, Royal Institute of International Affairs

Dinner with keynote address by Derek Osborn, (photo left) Member of the UK Sustainable Development Commission / Former Director General of Environmental Protection in the UK Department of the Environment / Former Co-Chair 1997 UN General Assembly 5 year review of UNCED / Former Chairman of the Management Board of the European Environment Agency




Session 7: Science Based Approaches to
Environmental Security

Organised by Institute for Environmental Security and SarVision


Moderator: Wouter Veening, Director, Institute for Environmental Security

Rapporteur: Ms Jeanna Hyde Hecker, Institute for Environmental Security

Space Agencies and Remote Sensing Monitoring Systems Prof Dirk Hoekman, SarVision / Wageningen University - 9.9MB

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Connecting Ecosystems and their Services with Environmental and Social Services Dr Henricus Leemans, Chair of the Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University / Co-Chair Response Option Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Full Powerpoint presentation - 4.9MB

Local Monitoring: Application of Traditional Knowledge to Environmental Security Dr Martin von Hildebrand, Director, Gaia Foundation, Colombia

Precaution - From Principle to Implementation in the European Union
Dr Claire Weill, Institute on Sustainable Development and International Relations - IDDRI
Full Powerpoint presentation




Session 8: Impact of Military/Conflict on the Environment

Organised by IUCN and The Netherlands Working Group on Ecology and Development


Moderator: Pekka Haavisto, Chairman, UNEP Post Conflict Assessment Unit / Former Minister of Environment and Development Cooperation, Finland

Nature in War: Biodiversity Conservation Before, During and After Armed Conflicts Drs Esther Blom, The Netherlands Working Group on Ecology and Development
Full Powerpoint presentation

Military/ Civil Cooperation for Postconflict Ecological Restoration Piet Wit, The Netherlands Working Group on Ecology and Development
Full Powerpoint presentation - 1.3MB

Legal Regulation of the Effects of Military Activity on the Environment Amy M Hindman, Legal Advisor to the Executive Director, UNEP
Full Powerpoint presentation

The Role of the Military and Military Technology in Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation Major General (retd) Joseph G Singh, Executive Director, Conservation International Guyana / Former Chief of Staff, Guyana
Full Powerpoint presentation - 2.0MB




Session 9: Pathways to Environmental Security

Organised by the Institute for Environmental Security


Moderators: Johannah Bernstein, Environmental Law and Policy Consulting and Ronald A Kingham, Deputy Director, Institute for Environmental Security

Presentation of the Chairman's Summary: "Pathways to Environmental Security": Tom Spencer, ECPA

Comments by Roundtable Moderators or Rapporteurs

What should Governments do now?

Bert-Axel Szelinski, Head of Division G II 3, Cooperation with OECD Member States, OECD, OSCE, UN-ECE, NATO-CCMS, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Germany

Mersie Ejigu, Former Minister of Planning and Development / Former Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ethiopia
Full Powerpoint presentation

Urs Schmid, Head International Security Section, Centre for International Security, Policy, Federal Dept of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland

Pekka Haavisto, Chairman, UNEP Post Conflict Assessment Unit / Former Minister of Environment and Development Cooperation, Finland




Session 10: The Way Forward: From Policy to Practice

Organised by Brookings Institution and IES


Moderators: Tom Spencer, ECPA and Dr Geoffrey D. Dabelko, Environmental Change and Security Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

The Next Steps

Summary of Action Proposals and Call for Follow-up Commitments from Participants: Ronald A Kingham, Deputy Director, Institute for Environmental Security

Closing Remarks

The Way Forward: From Policy to Practice Katsuaki L. Terasawa, Croft Institute for International Studies

Prof John McNeill, Cinco Hermanos Chair of Environmental and International Affairs, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University

Pieter van Geel, State Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, The Netherlands




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